Author: emilynarren12

Dozens Arrested in Anti-Trump Protests Around Inauguration

Pepper sprays are used by law enforcement agencies for riot control. They help keep the crowd subdued preventing any grave injuries from happening:

WASHINGTON — Donald Trump’s Inauguration Day festivities triggered a wave of turbulent demonstrations, dissent and dozens of arrests Friday as protesters brought traffic to a crawl in the nation’s capital.

After a night of chaotic clashes between police and protesters, violence erupted again in the city’s downtown, about five blocks from the presidential parade route.

Dozens of protesters — some self-described “anarchists” dressed in black and wearing masks — damaged businesses at 10:30 a.m. ET just before Trump’s swearing-in ceremony got underway, Metropolitan police said.

Authorities arrested 95 people — some charged with rioting — in the Franklin Park area and acting Police Chief Peter Newsham said there was “significant damage” to at least four businesses. Two police officers suffered minor injuries as protesters flung bricks, trash cans and other objects, and ignited small fires.

“I saw one guy, he was like pushing a cop, kind of antagonizing him, and the cop with the riot shield was banging him back,” Johnny Silvercloud, a freelance journalist who was photographing protesters, told NBC News.

One man was accidentally knocked over by protesters, a law enforcement officer told NBC News. He was bleeding from the back of his skull as paramedics helped him onto a stretcher.

Despite the arrests, the demonstrations continued through the afternoon, and police used pepper spray and flash-bang grenades to hold back the crowds, refusing to let people closer to the parade route.

What is largely a day of jubilation for the new president has been defined by mass protests that are expected to strengthen through the weekend. A Women’s March on Washington set for Saturday is expected to draw 200,000 protesters — a number that Inaugural Historian Jim Bendat said could break records.

Meanwhile, Interstate 695, which runs through the capital, came to a standstill Friday afternoon as people holding signs and waving flags stopped traffic.

D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser has said more than 3,000 police officers from other regions and 5,000 National Guardsmen are on hand to help secure the parade route.

With hundreds of thousands descending on D.C., security checkpoints were choked with foot traffic earlier Friday as inauguration ceremony ticket-holders weaved through demonstrators to get to Capitol Hill.

The protesters chanted and carried signs — many attacking Trump or making other political and social statements, including “Not my president,” “No Islamophobia” and “Black Lives Matter.”

Protesters Joni Lipson and Joan Duckenfield, both of Philadelphia, said they were buoyed by the huge turnout of protesters.

“It looks like there are more of us than Trump supporters here,” Duckenfield said.

Trump supporters at one checkpoint at 10th and E streets tried to thread their way past a group of self-described “anarchists.” But the demonstrators locked arms and inadvertently tripped a pro-Trump couple trying to pass.

Police immediately pounced and untangled everybody, while the protesters roared “Don’t touch me” and “Stop! Stop!” Nobody was arrested.

The scene was just one tense moment that played out after police deployed pepper spray as hundreds rallied Friday night outside the National Press Club, where a pro-Trump event billed as the “DeploraBall” was being held. Some demonstrators set off smoke devices in the middle of the crowd, and police in riot gear mobilized to block entrance to the event.

“Impeach the predatory president,” read one of two messages projected onto the building’s façade. Crowds chanted “Nazi scum” at those who entered. Some of the protesters were with the group Refuse Fascism.

But the protests have also included rallies for causes other than directly opposing Trump.

A group against the Dakota Access Pipeline, for example, confronted police Friday morning at the 14th and F streets entrance into the parade route. Police pulled protesters away from the checkpoint, amid cries of “No warning!”

Others, like the pro-marijuana legalization group DCMJ advocated on their own behalf. Marijuana use is legal in Washington, and DCMJ handed out thousands of marijuana cigarettes, or joints, for free to show support for legalization.

More than 10,000 people had gathered Friday morning in DuPont Circle, in a line stretching five blocks long, to pick up their weed, said DCMJ co-founder Nikolas Schiller. They planned to march toward the National Mall and light up at exactly 4 minutes and 20 seconds into Trump’s inaugural address — a nod to the number “420” which is code for marijuana/getting high.

“I got my joint and it’s wonderful,” Justice Shakur, who drove from Baltimore, told NBC News, adding that “you can be a Trump supporter and still like marijuana.”

The demonstrations in D.C. have been one of several held throughout the country in opposition to Trump, including a “unity” demonstration outside Trump International Hotel in New York. The event got a boost of star power from Robert De Niro, Sally Field and Mark Ruffalo.

As seen on NBC News

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Clinicopathological effects of pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

Pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray is one of the most common riot-control measures used today. Although not lethal, exposure of pepper spray can cause injury to different organ sylinicopathstems. This review aimed to summarise the major cological effects of pepper spray in humans.

DATA SOURCES:
MEDLINE, EMBASE database, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were used to search for terms associated with the clinicopathological effects of pepper spray in humans and those describing the pathophysiology of capsaicin. A phone interview with two individuals recently exposed to pepper spray was also conducted to establish clinical symptoms.

STUDY SELECTION:
Major key words used for the MEDLINE search were “pepper spray”, “OC spray”, “oleoresin capsicum”; and other key words as “riot control agents”, “capsaicin”, and “capsaicinoid”. We then combined the key words “capsaicin” and “capsaicinoid” with the major key words to narrow down the number of articles. A search with other databases including EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was also conducted with the above phrases to identify any additional related articles.

DATA EXTRACTION:
All article searches were confined to human study. The bibliography of articles was screened for additional relevant studies including non-indexed reports, and information from these was also recorded. Non-English articles were included in the search.

DATA SYNTHESIS:
Fifteen articles were considered relevant. Oleoresin capsicum causes almost instantaneous irritative symptoms to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Dermatological effects include a burning sensation, erythema, and hyperalgesia. Ophthalmic effects involve blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, peri-orbital oedema, and corneal pathology. Following inhalation, a stinging or burning sensation can be felt in the nose with sore throat, chest tightness, or dyspnoea. The major pathophysiology is neurogenic inflammation caused by capsaicinoid in the pepper spray. There is no antidote for oleoresin capsicum. Treatment consists of thorough decontamination, symptom-directed supportive measures, and early detection and treatment of systemic toxicity. Decontamination should be carefully carried out to avoid contamination of the surrounding skin and clothing.

CONCLUSION:
Pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray is an effective riot-control agent and does not cause life-threatening clinical effects in the majority of exposed individuals. Early decontamination minimises the irritant effects.

As seen in a publication by Yeung MF, Tang WY
Hong Kong Med J. 2015 Dec;21(6):542-52. doi: 10.12809/hkmj154691. Epub 2015 Nov 6

The name Mace

Mace is the genericized trademark of Chemical Mace, the brand name of an early type of aerosol self defense spray invented by Allan Lee Litman in 1965. The first commercial product of its type, Litman’s design packaged phenacyl chloride (CN) tear gas dissolved in hydrocarbon solvents into a small aerosol spray can, usable in almost any environment and strong enough (when sprayed in the face) to act as a credible deterrent and incapacitant. Its popularity led to the brand name being shortened to simply “Mace” for all defense sprays (regardless of the composition).

The original formulation consisted of 1% CN in a solvent of 2-butanol, propylene glycol, cyclohexene, and dipropylene glycol methyl ether.

Chemical Mace was originally invented in 1965 by Allan Lee Litman, founder and co-owner of Pittsburgh-based General Ordnance Equipment Corporation (GOEC), after his wife, Doris, was threatened on the street. In 1987, Chemical Mace was sold to Smith & Wesson and manufactured by their Lake Erie Chemical division. Smith & Wesson subsequently transferred ownership to Jon E. Goodrich along with the rest of the chemical division in what is now Mace Security International. Though the design has been expanded on, the original Chemical Mace formula using only CN has since been discontinued. Due to the potentially toxic nature of CN and the generally superior incapacitating qualities of oleoresin capsicum (OC) pepper spray in most situations, the early CN has been mostly supplanted by OC formulas in police use, although Mace Security International still retains a popular “Triple Action” formula combining CN, OC and an ultraviolet marker dye.

As seen in Wikipedia

Pepper Spray Information

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)?

Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is the oil taken from the placenta near the stem of a pepper. Although OC is the active ingredient used in most self-defense sprays, the percentage of OC within the formulation does NOT indicate pepper spray strength. The OC percentage only measures the amount of red pepper contained in the defense spray, not the pungency or effectiveness of the product.

What are Capsaicin & Capsaicinoids?

Oleoresin Capsicum is comprised of several different Capsaicinoids. There are five major Capsaicinoid responsible for providing the pungency or hotness of a pepper. Capsaicin is the strongest or most important of the five. Therefore, it is the percentage of the total capsaicinoids, not the OC percentage that is most important. Civilian and Law Enforcement Pepper sprays range from 0.18% to 1.33% Major Capsaicinoids.

Bear Sprays range from 1.0% to 2.0% Major Capsaicinoids.

What are Scoville Heat Units (SHUs)?

Scoville Heat Units is NOT an inaccurate indicator used to measure the pungency of defense sprays. The Habanero is the hottest chili pepper, measuring 325,000 SHUs. The raw pepper used in pepper spray measures 2,000,000 SHUs which is over six times hotter than a habanero.

SHUs would be an accurate indicator if manufacturers presented the SHUs of their formulation. Instead, they present the SHUs of the raw pepper which is not the strength of the spray.

Which is better CS or CN tear gas?

“Super CS Military Tear Gas” offers numerous advantages over CN “Mace” tear gas. Because of these advantages, the US Department of Defense switched from using CN tear gas to CS in the late 1950’s. CS offers the following advantages over CN/Mace.

CS takes effect quicker.
CS is more potent, but less toxic.
CS is extremely effective even in low concentrations.

If blended formulations are more effective, why do many law enforcement agencies carry OC only products?

Law enforcement officers have different objectives for carrying defense sprays than do civilians. For civilians, besides hand to hand combat, self defense-sprays are usually the first, and only means of defense available. For this reason, it is absolutely imperative that civilians carry the most effective products possible. Ideally, the spray will completely incapacitate the attacker and allow the victim to escape and call the police. If the victim is able to contact local law enforcement, there is a good chance that the law enforcement officers will be able to apprehend the attacker. If not, a description and an ultraviolet dye will help link the attacker to the scene of the crime.

Many law enforcement agencies carry pepper sprays which do not contain CS Tear Gas in order to reduce contamination of innocent bystanders and unwanted areas.

Are Law Enforcement Defense Sprays significantly more potent than civilian products?
There are significant differences in potency from one defense spray to the next. However, civilians have access to defense sprays with the same potency as carried by agencies using the strongest available formulations.

For how long do most units fire?

Pepper spray canisters fire up to five (5) times longer than the industry average. For example, the average 1/2 oz. (key chain) canister fires for approximately 5 quick bursts. The 1/2 oz canisters fire approximately 25 quick bursts! A 1/2 oz. (15 gram) canister is the most popular size carried among civilians.

For how long will most products last?

All aerosol products will eventually lose pressure over time. Most defense sprays last for only two years from their manufacture date. Because all products use only the best available components and formulation ingredients, all civilian products have a four year shelf life!

How far do most products fire?

Depending upon the wind, most defense sprays using a stream spray pattern fire 8 to 12 feet (3 to 4 meters). Defense sprays using a cone/mist spray fire from 6 to 12 feet (2 to 4 meters).

What sort of testing has been done on your products?

Each of our defense sprays have been tested by independent laboratories for the following:

Dermal Irritation
Eye Irritation
OC Pungency (HPLC)
Flammability
Inhalation

In addition, numerous other tests are performed on every defense spray canister that we produce. For example, a crimp, weight, pressure, and temperature test is performed on every canister.

How long should I fire the can at the attacker?

It is recommended that the canister be fired until the attacker is incapacitated. Once the attacker is stopped, escape immediately and call the police. If the canister is used, it is recommended that the unit be replaced.

FOUR FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN PURCHASING A DEFENSE SPRAY:

I. ACTIVE INGREDIENT

We recommend that consumers carry an advanced formulation because of its unique blend of CS Military Tear Gas, Red Pepper and UV Dye. It contains both the inflammatory effects of red pepper and the irritating effects of CS Tear Gas.

It is also very effective because it uses a very high concentration of major capsaicinoids.

II. CANISTER CONTENT

The canister you carry should contain as much product as possible to allow you to test fire your unit and stop multiple attackers if necessary. The smallest canisters, the pen and 1/2 oz. key-ring units, contain multiple bursts, approximately five times more than the competition.

III. SHELF-LIFE

The longer the product is effective, the more value it has for you the consumer. Civilian products have a four year shelf life!

IV. SAFETY MECHANISM

An easy to use safety is a must to prevent accidental discharge from occurring. Every unit contains a safety which can be unlocked and fired with one hand, in one fluid motion.

Are there any restrictions governing the use and sale of personal defense sprays?
Though legal in all 50 States, a number of cities and states have specific regulations pertaining to the purchase, possession and use of Defense Sprays. The following states each have varying restrictions: CA, HI, MA, MI, NJ, NY & WI. Security Equipment Corporation suggests that individuals also familiarize themselves with their local laws. If you have a question, you should contact your local retailer or Police Department. Defense Sprays are meant for defensive purposes only and can only be sold to or used by persons 18 years of age or older.

Can I use my pepper spray after the indicated expiration date?

Like any pressurized aerosol device, over time the unit may not spray as far as expected, if at all. Security Equipment Corporation recommends replacing your spray at the expiration date shown on your Defense Spray. The manufacturer cannot be held responsible if the spray has exceeded its expiration date or if the expiration date is no longer visible.

At what temperature should I store my Defense Spray?

Do not leave your Defense Spray in any area that may exceed 120 degrees F or drop below 32 degrees F. Excessive heat or cold may cause the can to leak or burst. Do not store your Defense Spray in your car.

Can I bring my Defense Spray on an airplane?

According to the Code of Federal Regulations, 49 CFR Part 175.10, Exceptions for passengers, crewmembers, and air operators, (9) One self-defense spray (see §171.8 of this subchapter), not exceeding 118 mL (4 fluid ounces) by volume, that incorporates a positive means to prevent accidental discharge may be carried in checked bag

As seen in MyStunGun

The value of a defense weapon

Cops know the value of a defense weapon that works before getting within arm’s reach. They know it stops almost every dirtbag creep in his tracks, giving them a big whomping advantage in taking care of business. They carry pepper spray with them every day, and you can bet your hat they are carrying it because it works!

Pepper spray is an ideal choice for anyone who has limited mobility or is not in good shape. Not everyone has the time or the will (or the money) for years of self-defense training in case it’s needed one day. Still the best self-defense choice is to get away, run your butt off until you are safe but if you’re out of shape, like me, then you need an “equalizer”.

When the proverbial *stuff * hits the fan your defense spray can give you the edge needed to make your escape. After telling the creep(s) to “leave you alone” (if you have time) use your spray without any other advance warning, this “sneaky strategy” is a vital part of your self-defense plan and just their plain bad luck.

Your “surprise” tactic will catch the thug off guard and before he even knows what happened, he will be fighting his own body’s reaction to this powerful spray, while you quickly “beat feet” out of there.

Pepper spray and Mace have completely changed your self-defense options. Now you no longer have any excuses about why you’re not protecting yourself and the family with a “hard-hitting” arsenal of inexpensive, immensely powerful but non-lethal weapons. Personally I don’t think the creeps deserve even that break, but that’s just me.

Immediately stop an attack – once sprayed, the thug’s eyes will tear profusely, swell the mucus membranes making breathing difficult forcing the thug to worry more about his own safety than continuing an attack on you!
Give yourself the escape option – after the thug is surprised by your “dirty fighting” instead of what he was expecting, his senses will be in temporary shock as his body tries to deal with the “liquid fire” burning in his eyes and lungs thus giving you the split second needed to run for safety
Weaken the thug’s will to fight – with all but life-sustaining breathing possible the lack of oxygen severely limits his ability to fight or chase after you – he will now be hoping he can get away before he is caught by the law
Help bring the thug to justice – after you have made your escape and called police the chances of catching him are now much easier when he can’t see well or run very far

Now You Have Easy And Low Cost Protection

Your choices may seem confusing at first but really it’s just a matter of personal choice, they’re all effective. The larger sizes (4 oz. and up) are great for hiking, camping or home protection. Smaller sizes are available, some even less than a half ounce, there is even a pepper spray ring – a must for any college student for the obvious reasons. (think date-rape, who is going to “remember” to bring their spray on a date?) A good all-around starter choice is the Mace Triple Action Fogger Model, it’s a great all around unit but about as large a size as you would typically want to carry around. At only $21.95 it combines pepper spray, tear gas and a special marking dye with a small droplet-size fogging pattern that works very quickly for less than a dinner for two at a family restaurant.

Compared to years of self-defense training, probably well over $1,000 or a handgun $350 – $900 and up (with it’s obvious legal and moral issues) or maybe a good knife or baseball bat at $40 or more this easily carried, man-stopping little aerosol container is worth more than ten times it’s cost. It’s real value comes on the day you use it, that day it’ll be worth a hundred times what you will pay for it.

The unspoken value of confidence that enables you to live your life the way you want can’t be given a price. How many times has fear kept you from living life? Level the playing field a little and see how it makes you feel.

Just remember, while pepper spray is very powerful no weapon or system can insure complete safety everywhere and at all times. Living itself involves risk every day but it’s what you do to minimize your risks that shows your wisdom. Live life, take chances where you will but don’t let the thugs of this world take away your self confidence.

Pepper Spray Is a Powerful Weapon!

It causes instant and intense pain, making breathing labored and the eyes swell, sting and tears flow. It will give you the “break” needed to instantly change the attacker’s mind. Now it is NOT a magic bullet. Never threaten to use it, a lack of surprise may give your attacker a chance to shield against a direct shot. He may even try to take it from you. When threatened keep your spray in hand and out of sight until the assailant closes into range, about 8 to 10 feet.

Important BS alert: A lot has been claimed about special or secret formulas and percentages. The truth is all of the top brands, Pepper Shot, Mace, Wildfire, Sabre, and Fox Labs are man-stopping concentrations. Any brand name formula will temporarily incapacitate your attacker long enough for you to make your break for safety. A good spray in the face of the attacker is more important than meaningless astronomical Scoville Heat Units, surprise is key.

Considering a (minimal, but possible) mistaken threat identification or accidental discharge you may not want the absolute hottest of the hot. Cops are trained in proper decontamination procedures they are required to use. Your (civilian) concern should only be for your personal self defense and escape. Leave the responsibility to bring the dirtbag to justice up to the cops, it’s what we pay ’em for.

Empower Yourself Now

Yesterday’s advice of passive submission to an attacker in the “hope” that he may at least leave you with your life is a recipe for disaster. In the final analysis you will have to decide how best to respond to an attack based on the circumstances at the time but consider this, if you have already “planned” to give in you have preconditioned yourself to be a victim.

The predators out there can spot this as easily as the lion in Africa spots the weak ones in the herd as it plans its attack. Resolve yourself to fight, no one has the right to assault you, threaten you, terrorize you, and “maybe” leave you your life. Carry this powerful mental attitude everywhere you go. You will find this will help make you too hard to tackle as these creeps will recognize you’re not weak and they’ll move on in search of easier prey. These dirtbags aren’t looking for a fight, they want the meek little lambs who think we all “really can get along”.